Pjetër Bogdani
| Saturday, 07.07.2007, 12:47 PM |  


Frontispiece showing Pjetër Bogdani at prayer. From Bogdani's "Cuneus Prophetarum", Padua 1685
Pjetër Bogdani (ca. 1630-1689), known in Italian as Pietro Bogdano, is the most original writer of early literature in Albania. He is author of the Cuneus Prophetarum (The Band of the Prophets), 1685, the first prose work of substance written originally in Albanian (i.e. not a translation).

Born in Gur i Hasit near Prizren about 1630, Bogdani was educated in the traditions of the Catholic church to which he devoted all his energy. His uncle Andrea or Ndre Bogdani (ca. 1600-1683) was Archbishop of Skopje and author of a Latin-Albanian grammar, now lost. Bogdani is said to have received his initial schooling from the Franciscans at Ciprovac in northwestern Bulgaria and then studied at the Illyrian College of Loretto near Ancona, as had his predecessors Pjetër Budi and Frang Bardhi. From 1651 to 1654 he served as a parish priest in Pult and from 1654 to 1656 studied at the College of the Propaganda Fide in Rome where he graduated as a doctor of philosophy and theology. In 1656, he was named Bishop of Shkodra, a post he held for twenty-one years, and was also appointed Administrator of the Archdiocese of Antivari (Bar) until 1671. During the most troubled years of the Turkish-Austrian war, 1664-1669, he hid out in the villages of Barbullush and Rjoll near Shkodra. A cave near Rjoll, in which he took refuge, still bears his name. In 1677, he succeeded his uncle as Archbishop of Skopje and Administrator of the Kingdom of Serbia. His religious zeal and patriotic fervour kept him at odds with Turkish forces, and in the atmosphere of war and confusion which reigned, he was obliged to flee to Ragusa (Dubrovnik), from where he continued on to Venice and Padua, taking his manuscripts with him. In Padua he was cordially received by Cardinal Gregorio Barbarigo (1622-1697), whom he had served in Rome. Cardinal Barbarigo, Bishop of Padua, was responsible for church affairs in the East and had a keen interest in the cultures of the orient, including Albania. He had also founded a printing press in Padua, the Tipografia del Seminario, which served the needs of oriental languages and had fonts for Hebrew, Arabic and Armenian. Barbarigo was thus well disposed, willing and able to assist Bogdani in the latter's historic undertaking.

After arranging for the publication of the Cuneus Prophetarum, Bogdani returned to the Balkans in March 1686 and spent the next years promoting resistance to the armies of the Ottoman Empire, in particular in Kosova. He contributed a force of 6,000 Albanian soldiers to the Austrian army which had arrived in Prishtina and accompanied it to capture Prizren. There, however, he and much of his army were met by another equally formidable adversary, the plague. Bogdani returned to Prishtina but succumbed to the disease there in December 1689. His nephew Gjergj reported in 1698 that his uncle's remains were later exhumed by Turkish and Tartar soldiers and fed to the dogs in the middle of the square in Prishtina. So ended one of the great figures of early Albanian culture, the writer often referred to as the father of Albanian prose.

It was in Padua in 1685 that the Cuneus Prophetarum, his vast treatise on theology, was published in Albanian and Italian with the assistance of Cardinal Barbarigo. Bogdani had finished the Albanian version ten years earlier but was refused permission to publish it by the Propaganda Fide which ordered that the manuscript be translated first, no doubt to facilitate the work of the censor. The full title of the published version is:

"Cvnevs prophetarvm de Christo salvatore mvndi et eivs evangelica veritate, italice et epirotice contexta, et in duas partes diuisa a Petro Bogdano Macedone, Sacr. Congr. de Prop. Fide alvmno, Philosophiae & Sacrae Theologiae Doctore, olim Episcopo Scodrensi & Administratore Antibarensi, nunc vero Archiepiscopo Scvporvm ac totivs regni Serviae Administratore"

(The Band of the Prophets Concerning Christ, Saviour of the World and his Gospel Truth, edited in Italian and Epirotic and divided into two parts by Pjetër Bogdani of Macedonia, student of the Holy Congregation of the Propaganda Fide, doctor of philosophy and holy theology, formerly Bishop of Shkodra and Administrator of Antivari and now Archbishop of Skopje and Administrator of all the Kingdom of Serbia).

The Cuneus Prophetarum was printed in the Latin alphabet as used in Italian, with the addition of the same Cyrillic characters employed by Pjetër Budi and Frang Bardhi. Bogdani seems therefore to have had access to their works. During his studies at the College of the Propaganda Fide, he is known to have requested Albanian books from the college printer: "five copies of the Christian Doctrine and five Albanian dictionaries," most certainly the works of Budi and Bardhi. In a report to the Propaganda Fide in 1665, he also mentions a certain 'Euangelii in Albanese' (Gospels in Albanian) of which he had heard, a possible reference to Buzuku's missal of 1555.

The Cuneus Prophetarum was published in two parallel columns, one in Albanian and one in Italian, and is divided into two volumes, each with four sections (scala). The first volume, which is preceded by dedications and eulogies in Latin, Albanian, Serbian and Italian, and includes two eight-line poems in Albanian, one by his cousin Luca Bogdani and one by Luca Summa, deals primarily with themes from the Old Testament: i) How God created man, ii) The prophets and their metaphors concerning the coming of the Messiah, iii) The lives of the prophets and their prophecies, iv) The songs of the ten Sibyls. The second volume, entitled De vita Jesu Christi salvatoris mundi (On the life of Jesus Christ, saviour of the world), is devoted mostly to the New Testament: i) The life of Jesus Christ, ii) The miracles of Jesus Christ, iii) The suffering and death of Jesus Christ, iv) The resurrection and second coming of Christ. This section includes a translation from the Book of Daniel, 9. 24-26, in eight languages: Latin, Greek, Armenian, Syriac, Hebrew, Arabic, Italian and Albanian, and is followed by a chapter on the life of the Antichrist, by indices in Italian and Albanian and by a three-page appendix on the Antichità della Casa Bogdana (Antiquity of the House of the Bogdanis).

The work was reprinted twice under the title L'infallibile verità della cattolica fede, Venice 1691 and 1702 (The infallible truth of the Catholic faith).

The Cuneus Prophetarum is considered to be the masterpiece of early Albanian literature and is the first work in Albanian of full artistic and literary quality. In scope, it covers philosophy, theology and science (with digressions on geography, astronomy, physics and history). With its poetry and literary prose, it touches on questions of aesthetic and literary theory. It is a humanist work of the Baroque Age steeped in the philosophical traditions of Plato, Aristotle, St Augustine and St Thomas Aquinas. Bogdani's fundamental philosophical aim is a knowledge of God, an unravelling of the problem of existence, for which he strives with reason and intellect.

Bogdani's talents are certainly most evident in his prose. In his work we encounter for the first time what may be considered an Albanian literary language. As such, he may justly bear the title of father of Albanian prose. His modest religious poetry is, nonetheless, not devoid of interest. The corpus of his verse are the Songs of the Ten Sibyls (the Cumaean, Libyan, Delphic, Persian, Erythraean, Samian, Cumanian, Hellespontic, Phrygian and Tiburtine), which are imbued with the Baroque penchant for religious themes and Biblical allusions.



The Cumaean Sibyl

Peace and abundant fruit will there be from Heaven
For six years before his birth and, thereafter,
For another six will it know no end on earth.
Oh, wonder! For the wolf, the sheep and the lamb will dine
Together; the Son of Man and the dragon will live
Side by side without fear, without tears, or cries, or lamentation;
The lynx will spare the goats and kids,
For Our Lord will guard and raise them in peace.

[Sibila Cumea, from Cuneus Prophetarum, Padua, Typographia Seminarii 1685, p. 161, translated from the Albanian by Robert Elsie]

The Libyan Sibyl

He arrives as a man among mortal men,
To save the world with his own death
And passing by, to heal wounds without any balm,
To give sight to eyes, hearing to ears,
Proper movement to lame legs, without payment, without gold,
Expelling idols and the reign of death among us;
An only son, loved by his Mother,
Returned from the grave, safe and sound,
Clothed by the sun and shod by the moon,
A crown of stars circling his head.
The Maiden Mary, fairer than a zana,
Will receive her tender lad Jesus in her arms
To the envy of the Jews and the pagans
Who, plotting in council together,
Set forth to expel the lad Jesus,
Giving him no respite nor earthly place.

[Sibila Libica, from Cuneus Prophetarum, Padua, Typographia Seminarii 1685, p. 162-163, translated from the Albanian by Robert Elsie]

The Delphic Sibyl

I weep, wretched me, a loud lament
For Christ lying on the ground, drubbed and badly disfigured,
Given lashes, beatings, poison and vinegar,
His body wound-battered and besmirched,
Israel on earth left no iniquity undone.
With a spear still piercing his head,
They laid him lifeless in the lap of his mother,
Rending her heart to pieces.

[Sibila Delfica, from Cuneus Prophetarum, Padua, Typographia Seminarii 1685, p. 164, translated from the Albanian by Robert Elsie]

The Persian Sibyl

A voice from the mountains cries out in the wilderness
To carry the gospel, to pave for the world the path
Of righteousness, to preach forgiveness of sins,
And baptism. In this life
It will bring salvation to those who renounce lies and deception.
They will find their place in paradise, if they wish to,
By crushing the head of that inner beast,
By doing good deeds and by going often to church.

[Sibila Persica, from Cuneus Prophetarum, Padua, Typographia Seminarii 1685, p. 165, translated from the Albanian by Robert Elsie]

The Erythraean Sibyl

Thus sings and writes the Ionian Sibyl:
The blazing wind from the heavens burns trees and stones,
Spreading throughout the world,
Instead of water, the springs well with blood,
So arid is it that even the seas dry up
As the world is consumed like a torch,
Emerging from the clouds, Christ on high
Descends irately to expel evildoers below,
Many wretches there suffer badly,
Seared to ashes their souls, flesh and bones,
They and their cohorts pay the price for having done evil,
Sulphur, tar and lead all combined,
Snow and ice are laid in their beds,
And never are they allowed to leave,
Forever and ever, inconsolable pain,
Forgotten by Our Lord and the saints,
Damned be their idols, Muhammad, prophet of Allah,
Calvin, and Luther who deceived them,
May they be consigned to serpents and toads,
May the she-wolf consume for her meal the hearts
Of those who have trifled with Hell,
Who have eaten meat on a Friday, day of fasting,
And you who unthinkingly have abandoned the faith,
Gullible, you have fallen for lies,
Pay attention to where you may be heading,
Yes, repent in this life,
Confessing your vain undertakings,
Oh Man, what you have accomplished are but arrows,
Illusion, jealousy and envy. Weep for yourself.

[Sibila Eritrea, from Cuneus Prophetarum, Padua, Typographia Seminarii 1685, p. 166-168, translated from the Albanian by Robert Elsie]

The Samian Sibyl

Oh Zion, loftier than Pashtrik, mountain of Prizren,
We worship you, for from you will emerge the law.
When gentle Christ gave sweet pleasure to the apostles
With beloved communion and holy sermons,
And the Maiden, sent to you from on high,
Gave birth to the Son of Man, who taught us,
Then the Jews, who took your Godhead, meant for them,
Planted on his head a crown of thorns.

[Sibila Samia, from Cuneus Prophetarum, Padua, Typographia Seminarii 1685, p. 169, translated from the Albanian by Robert Elsie]

The Cumanian Sibyl

As Isaiah says, before the stem opens,
The infant flower shall come forth out of the Root of Jesse,
Like a white lily in the springtime,
Or as a hyacinth in April sprouts from the earth,
God himself promised this to us many times,
The ancient synagogue will free itself of the knot,
Assuming a pure name fashioned of words.
Thus sings and speaks our Sibyl in verse.

[Sibila Cumana, from Cuneus Prophetarum, Padua, Typographia Seminarii 1685, p. 170, translated from the Albanian by Robert Elsie]

The Hellespontic Sibyl

The Father gives birth to the Son in his own image,
The two, with the beloved Holy Ghost, breathe
Upon the world for its salvation, which conveys grace.
Whosoever wishes to see heaven, may he thus worship the Divine
And be freed of all his sins.
In his heart and on his brow may he honour the Cross
Upon which the second figure of the Trinity
Was nailed, overwhelmed by this life.

[Sibila Elespontica, from Cuneus Prophetarum, Padua, Typographia Seminarii 1685, p. 172, translated from the Albanian by Robert Elsie]

The Phrygian Sibyl

When blessed Christ perished, covered with wounds,
Stones and trees fractured, and the temple's canopy split in two,
Darkness shrouded the earth for three days,
The sun and the moon were both bathed in blood,
The heart of the world groaned in sorrow.
Many souls veiled themselves in flesh, and then,
After three days, they rose to heaven with Christ,
If any have done evil, then later they will suffer.

[Sibila Frigia, from Cuneus Prophetarum, Padua, Typographia Seminarii 1685, p. 173, translated from the Albanian by Robert Elsie]

The Tiburtine Sibyl

After burying the Old Testament itself,
And leaving death and slavery behind him,
Like a lofty eagle, Christ crossed over to heaven.
Written in his own blood for you, oh Man,
He illuminated paradise, and comforted all souls,
Promising to return later,
With all the saints, swathed in light,
To judge in righteousness good and evil.

[Sibila Tiburtina, from Cuneus Prophetarum, Padua, Typographia Seminarii 1685, p. 173, translated from the Albanian by Robert Elsie]

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